History of Metrology

"Science commance when measurements take place. Exact science is inconceivable without measure "

Dmitry Mendeleev


  The measurements have an important role in human life. They are required at each step: for example starting with determining quantity or mass of food, or the electric energy consumption, up to the most difficult research that determines quantitative characteristics and proparties of studied phenomena or objects. The measurements are of paramount importance for domestic and foreign trade, ensuring product quality, implementation of new technologies to ensure safe operation and so on.

  Measurements have been performed since ancient times, when the sizes of the hand or foot of a human beeing were accepted as measuring means. For example in Russia units of measurement were span, yards, and in the West were inch, foot, and so on. In Egypt, a measuring mean was the length of the open hand of the ruling pharaoh. It has been copied and carved on the black granite, possession of which was entrusted to the architects who erected temples of the pharaohs. And those who forget or ignore their duty to calibrate the standard unit of measurement were sentenced to death.


The necessity of uniformity of measurements

as a motivation for a new science

  Metrology is the science of measurement and its application.

  The lack of uniform system of measurements was a great obstacle for the development of comercial relations. That was the reason that in 17-18 centuries national state measurement standards were created in France, England, Germany and Russia. The difficulties with the difference in national measurement systems led to the establishment of Metric System in 1889 which was based on 3 measurement units which were length (meter), mass (kg) and time (seconds) as more practicable ones. Later, in 1960, International System of Units SI was established which is internationally accepted, even in the countries wich have their own traditional units of measurement.

  Metrology as a science was evolved in France by the establishement of standard of meter, which is kept in the Museum of weights and measures as a historical etalon.

  Later metrology developed into 3 following directions

  Scientific metrology concentrates mainly on theoretical problems dealing with development, classification and maintenance of measuring standards.

Industrial metrology provides the accurate results of measuring instruments for the use in industrial fields.

  Legal metrology regulates the legal basis for ensuring the uniformity of measurements, settles down the relationships between legal entities and private entrepreneures in the fields of uniformity of measurements, and aims at protecting the rights and legal interests of consumers from negative consequences of doubtful measurement results, as well as promoting economic development and scientific and technological progress.

Metrology in Armenia

  The first institution engaged in the state control of measures and measuring instruments in Armenia was the department of "weights and measures" established in 1921 by the decree of the National Economy. Later on, Local Standardization Bureau "Armstandart” which was created in 1931 controlled the fulfillment of standards requirements and conducted verification of measuring instruments.

  In 1971 Armenian Republican Bureau was established, which acted under the old system of the Standardization State Committee of the USSR. The National Centre for Standardization and Metrology was established in 1976, the main functions of which were the implementation and maintenance of standards, as well as provision of state supervision and verification of the measuring instruments. Later, after the collapse of the USSR, the ensuring of uniformity of measurements was carried out according to the RA law "On ensuring the uniformity of measurements in the Republic of Armenia" on April 30, 1997 through the Buro of Standards, Metrology and Certification (SMC) under the Government of the Republic of Armenia “Armgosstandart” and its closed joint stock companies, including “Metrology" CJSC.

Turning Point in the Historical Development of Metrology in Armenia

  According to the decision of the government of RA N-1032 of 22 July 2004 and RA Law "On ensuring the uniformity of measurements" on 26 May 2004 on the basis of "Metrology" CJSC was created "National Institute of Metrology" CJSC.